Wednesday, March 25, 2009

Risque cardiovasculaire, cholestérol et tension artérielle (I)

L’enquête s’est focalisée sur 2 facteurs de risque perçus comme les deux plus importants aux yeux des personnes interrogées, à savoir le cholestérol et l’hypertension artérielle. À noter que l’obésité n’arrive qu’en 6e position dans ce classement.

Que retient cette population à risque de toutes ces informations ? Les personnes traitées pour ces facteurs de risques ont-ils une meilleure connaissance par rapport au reste de la population ? L’enjeu est essentiel car tous les spécialistes s’accordent pour dire que la première étape dans le traitement est la prise de conscience, qui passe nécessairement par une information adéquate. D’autre part, les connaissances sur ces facteurs de risque évoluent très vite. D’autant que la progression maintenant constante du syndrome métabolique qui multiplie par deux la probabilité de survenue d’un accident cardio-vasculaire par rapport à une population exempte, conduisent à revoir régulièrement les recommandations de prise en charge. Aujourd’hui les spécialistes recommandent d’éduquer les patients à haut risque à atteindre les valeurs les plus basses, que ce soit pour le cholestérol ou l’hypertension artérielle. Parallèlement, les statines les plus puissantes viennent tout récemment de démontrer un effet bénéfique sur l’athérosclérose ou "effet pléïotropique" agissant sur plusieurs facteurs de risque.

Taux de cholestérol
Selon les résultats de l’enquête, 82% des personnes interrogées ignorent leur taux de cholestérol. Parmi les personnes traitées pour leur cholestérol (36% des personnes interrogées), cette méconnaissance est également bien présente : 1 personne traitée sur 2 ignore son taux. Plus alarmant encore : 39% de ces patients ignorent les taux cibles de cholestérol total à atteindre, mais surtout 65% d’entre eux ignorent le taux limite de mauvais cholestérol.

Ainsi, non seulement le fait d’être traité n’implique pas une bonne connaissance de son propre taux, mais l’enquête révèle également une mauvaise prise de conscience des vrais facteurs de risque. Enfin, la moyenne des taux cibles à atteindre citée par les répondants se situe 10% au-dessus des recommandations actuelles : soit +/- 208 mg/dl pour une recommandation à 190 mg/dl pour le taux de cholestérol total. La connaissance de l’excès de cholestérol comme facteur de risque est très aléatoire tant en surface qu’en profondeur.

Tension artérielle
Même constat pour l’autre facteur de risque considéré comme le plus important, après le cholestérol par les répondants : l’hypertension artérielle. Selon l’enquête, 41% ignorent leur tension artérielle et 84% les chiffres de la tension idéale.

Être traité pour l’hypertension n’est également pas un gage de meilleure connaissance et/ou de meilleure maîtrise. Parmi les patients traités, la moitié ignore la tension artérielle idéale à atteindre.

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Risque cardiovasculaire, cholestérol et tension artérielle (I)

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